Our Favorite  Links

"When We Were Apollo " An awesome chronology of events, with many reminders of our experience.

 https://www.whenwewereapollo.com    Available on PBS Broadcast schedule within the webite .

 note: we were also Apollo

This site has been on the internet or in preparation for being published since the early 1990's when there were few other website's in existence about Apollo Missions to the Moon. Internet publishing technology in those early days was limited to mostly text and a few pictures due to slow data transmission rates and the time and space required for even a small picture to be included.

 "Dial Up" connections via the telephone having low uplink and downlink data transfer rates were so slow that publishers avoided a lot of detailed information (pictures, and razzle dazzle tools) since they required too much time for uplink, and especially for downlink. Otherwise, viewers would become bored and move on. Therefore, websites were kept simple, and webmasters searched the Internet for related material complementing their publication by including a “Links” page for identifying URL's. Today, high data transfer speeds, and sophisticated search engine capability, render the Links page somewhat obsolete, except for newly discovered sites highly recommended by the publisher.

 In short “Links pages" cannot compete with search engines of today in displaying lengthy information relevant to any subject or general interest. So, “we google it”, to use a familiar expression.

Clearly, there are now hundreds or perhaps thousands of informative sites related to Apollo Missions on the Internet. Therefore, it is neither practical nor possible to Link them all.

Our Links page will only be used to publish special new websites we discover and recommend for our viewers, and those who employed us during our career in aerospace.


Several of our team members  previous Aerospace employers & where some became  employed or returned when the Apollo program ended:

The  Institute for Learning in Retirement - ( ILR ) University of North Alabama  (UNA)

SPACEX   ( honorable mention only. Not a past training team member employer)

  Landing and Recovery Division

                 A must see !

       Actual recovery video's  

             Stories & Photo's

Engineering instructors of this site, together with the NASA Flight Control Training Administrators, functioned to prepare systems and subsystems level PIT documents for the NASA Apollo Flight Control Division (FCD) personnel. A modified Norman Crowder method was selected in view of the advanced knowledge level of a typical NASA Flight Controller

The Contractor Lead Instructor was responsible for determining, (with the NASA counterparts), the programming method of choice, and  familiarizing  others  with writing procedures.

 Field testing was done before the document would be formally released to the target student population.  This effort involved having select engineers of the FCD study the program in the presence of the author (Instructor/writer) to identify frames or elements of the programs needing revision.


In view of our situation where a pandemic has clearly impacted educational system in this country, we seem to be at odds as to how best teach our children, and unfortunately, politics has caused division  in whether to zoom train at home or risk the conventional classroom method.

While educational technology has kept pace with using the PC as a means of instruction with many augmentative audio/visual teaching tools, the programmed text methods of the past has been overlooked as an effective method for not only adjunct training, yet a means by design to achieve desired learning outcomes of many class levels at home with the teacher involved to administer the program. Elementary to College level programs may be prepared within a reasonable period.

Our team was taught PIT technology while maintaining classroom schedules, and successfully prepared documents for each of the major systems of the Apollo Command and Service Module.  

                   ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­                                          ________________________


We believe State Boards of Education should consider PIT as an adjunct method for Zoom and or conventional classroom instruction as well. .

In our opinion, Zoom cannot fully capture the attention to control the students or measure their daily learning as well as the programmed text material. This method is therefore recommended as a candidate means of assuring learning is not interrupted by Pandemics, sickness, or other reasons where classroom attendance is not possible or too risky. Remember, adjunct learning frames are built into the system.

Moreover, these programs ensure no variance from the basic and fundamental knowledge of our national educational goals and standards. An advantage of today's world is how these texts can be programmed on the Internet, as opposed to costly printing of physical textbooks and easily revised.


Programmed Instruction Text Books (PIT)

              A Pandemic Application??





https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED019867       Good Frames and Bad, Author Susan Markle


The following letter form was prepared based  on feedback related to the article  above, and  a critique of Internet distance teaching (Zoom) shared  by Grade School teachers having several months experience using this method  of instruction  during the present Pandemic. 

Primarily, the letter identifies the need for more parental (or equivalent) assistance in meeting the standard desired learning outcome of students  as it relates to classroom  instruction.


                                                       The Conditions of Teaching via Zoom

                                                                 (a typical letter to parents may help)


The transference of knowledge, or the act of teaching and learning requires an atmosphere where distractions or disruptions can be minimized. Therefore, the classroom is best and has become the standard medium for education.

Alternatives and adjunct methods have been developed using multimedia methods as technology has evolved, yet not to a point where distractions and discipline problems can be controlled as well as the classroom. However, there are those proven to be an effective adjunct methods for distance learning when administered under supervision.

Programmed Instruction Textbooks (PIT) became popular in the 60’s and widely used until the advent of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) became a popular training medium. Both were used by schools and colleges along with industrial training organizations including the NASA and the Military.

The Internet ultimately became a means and a medium by which these training systems could be easily programmed, and a cost-effective means to meet a great variety of educational needs.  However, from the Pedagogy standpoint, they are somewhat lacking with respect to live teacher motivation, or control of student distractions and discipline. Without these, the desired and most effective teaching and learning environment cannot be fully achieved. This is especially true where younger students become involved.

Unfortunately, these media have become our primary source for education due to the present Pandemic. ZOOM has replaced the classroom in many areas and suddenly without preparation or understanding of what it may entail as a teacher, student, or a parent.

Therefore, educators are feeling their way through this new medium and learning rapidly how it can be used yet without the classroom advantages related to motivation, or control of distractions, or discipline. These are generally under the control of the Teacher in the classroom, yet now become the responsibility of a parent or someone where the student is physically participating. Otherwise, only well-disciplined students with a natural appetite for learning are expected to achieve the desired learning outcome. Others will not score as well without some parental tutoring (or equivalent) assistance at home.

The mechanics of Zoom teaching to many students does not allow for individual discipline, motivation, or distractions without wasting valuable and limited time for the class.

Having the best interest of your child in mind, and their ability to advance educationally through these trying times, we ask for your assistance and understanding to continue their education, and to realize our efforts cannot be expected to meet with usual classroom standards without your assistance. Together, we can hopefully, moving forward, mitigate the impact of this pandemic on the education of our children.